By George Phillips
To Cera1l1ics by means of George C. Phillips V AN NOSTRAND REINHOLD ____ manhattan Copyright ('> 1991 by way of Van Nostrand Reinhold Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1 st variation 1991 Library of COnRreSS Catalog Card quantity 91.19587 ISBN.13: 978.94.011--6975.2 All rights eserve r d. No a part of this paintings coated by means of the copyright hereon could be rcproduccd or uscd in any shape or by means of any means-graphic. digital. or meehaniclli. together with photocopying. recording. taping. or info garage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the writer. synthetic within the us of a released via Van Nostrand Reinhold a hundred and fifteen 5th road long island. big apple 10003 Chapman and Ha ll 2-6 Boundary Row London. SEI SHN. England Thomas Nelson Australia 102 Dodds road South Melbourne 3205 Victoria. Australia Nelson Canada 1120 Birchmounl highway Scarborough. Ontario M IK 5G4. Canada sixteen 15 14 thirteen 12 II 10 nine eight 7 6 five four three 2 Library or Congress Cataloging-in. booklet facts Phillips. George C .. 1937- A concise inlrodu!;tion to ceramics/by George C. Phillips. p. cm. comprises bibliographical referen!;es and index. ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6975-2 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-011--6973-8 001:10: 1007/978-94-011--6973-8 I. Cerami!;s. L Tille.
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27 28 I I Overview of Ceramics The isotherm, or constant temperature, would represent the melting temperature of the crystal. The reason why crystals have specific melting temperatures is that all of the bonds have the same strength, as crystals have a repetitive structure. When energy is added in the form of heat, all of the bonds will break at the same temperature or melting point. A cooling curve representing a noncrystalline, or "glassy," material that cools from a melt is shown in Figure 5-2.
The atomic numbers (AN) from 1 (hydrogen) to 14 (silicon) correspond to the electronic configurations shown in Table 8-1. The number of electrons is represented by the Atomic Structure 43 TABLE 8-1. AN I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 Atoms (Symbol) Electronic Configuration Hydrogen (H) Helium (He) Lithium (Li) Beryllium (Be) Boron (B) Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (0) Flourine (F) Neon (Ne) Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Aluminum (AI) Silicon (Si) lsi Is' Is' 2s 1 Is' 2s' Is' 2s' 2pl Is' 2s' 2p' Is' 2s' 2p' Is' 2s' 2p' Is' 2s' 2p' Is' 2s' 2p6 Is' 2s' 2p6 3s 1 Is' 2s' 2p6 3s' Is' 2s' 2p6 3s' 3pl Is' 2s' 2p6 3s' 3p' exponents.
414 Ra' FIGURE 9-6. Limits for fourfold coordination. FIGURE 9-7. Tetrahedron configuration. /-~-ALUMINUM OR MAGNESIUM FIGURE 9-8. Octahedron configuration. Bonding and Crystal Chemistry Concepts 51 TABLE 9-1. 000 CN 2 3 4 6 8 12 Configuration Linear Equilateral triangle Tetrahedron Octahedron Body centered cubic Face centered cubic The radius ratio ranges, with the corresponding coordination numbers and geometric configurations, are listed in Table 9-1. The coordination numbers of the cations of primary interest are those of silicon, whose CN is 4 (tetrahedron), aluminum, whose CN is 6 (octa- SILICON (+4) MAGNESIUM (+2) ALUMINUM (+3) FIGURE 9-9.
A Concise Introduction to Ceramics by George Phillips