By Vassilis Inglezakis, Stavros Poulopoulos
Adsorption, Ion alternate and Catalysis is largely a mix of environmental technology and chemical reactor engineering. extra particularly, 3 very important heterogeneous tactics, particularly, adsorption, ion alternate and catalysis, are analysed, from primary kinetics to reactor layout with emphasis on their environmental purposes. In bankruptcy 1, the topic of air and water pollutants is handled. info approximately pollution and emission resources are given and the remedy equipment are almost immediately awarded. In bankruptcy 2, the very fundamentals and historic improvement of adsorption, ion alternate and catalysis are offered in addition to their environmental purposes. bankruptcy three is dedicated to heterogeneous techniques and reactor research. all kinds of reactors are defined extensive and reactor modelling, hydraulics and mass/heat move phenomena are tested for every kind of reactor. Chapters four and five are devoted to adsorption & ion alternate and catalysis, respectively. the fundamental rules are awarded together with kinetics, equilibrium, mass/heat move phenomena in addition to the analytical options of the reactor types offered in bankruptcy three. within the 6th bankruptcy, the topic of scale up is approached.The Annexes on the finish of the ebook include actual homes of gear of environmental curiosity in addition to unit conversion tables. ultimately, approximately all of the examples contained are according to genuine experimental info present in literature with environmental curiosity. lots of the examples give some thought to all points of operation layout - kinetics, hydraulics and mass transfer.* presents simple wisdom of significant environmental difficulties and connects them to chemicalengineering
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Extra resources for Adsorption, Ion Exchange and Catalysis: Design of Operations and Environmental Applications (2006)
1 Definitions 35 Catalysis can be generally described as the action of a catalyst, which is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, while itself remaining unchanged by the reaction. There are two main categories of catalysis: • • homogeneous catalysis, where the catalyst is in the same phase with the reactants, heterogeneous catalysis, where the catalyst is present in a different phase from the reactants in the reaction. Heterogeneous catalysis is often called surface catalysis as it mainly occurs between a solid surface and a gas.
The catalyst is regenerated in the final step. For example, if reactant A reacts with B to form the product (P) in the presence of a catalyst (C), a possible reaction scheme is A ϩ C AC Bϩ AC P ϩ C A ϩ B C →P An example of great environmental interest is the catalytic mechanism for ozone destruction by the hydroxyl radical, which is believed to be иOH ϩ O3 HO2 иϩO2 HO2 иϩO3 иOH ϩ 2O2 potential energy The hydroxyl radical is regenerated in the second reaction and may continue its action. 2 The catalyzed and the uncatalyzed reaction path.
Although the application of catalysts in the chemical industry is a fact for at least 150 years, the experimental techniques for investigation of catalysis at the atomic level did not become routine until less than 25 years ago; the computational techniques are even younger and have hardly become routine yet. For this reason, a vast amount of empirical knowledge exists and awaits systematic investigation. 5. 42 2. 5 Brief history of heterogeneous catalysis Scientist(s) name(s) Breakthrough Year von Marum J.
Adsorption, Ion Exchange and Catalysis: Design of Operations and Environmental Applications (2006) by Vassilis Inglezakis, Stavros Poulopoulos