By Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
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E. post-infancy) as opposed to infant protolanguages (see Halliday, 1975); verbal as opposed to music, dance and other languages of art (cf. Kress and van Leeuwen, 1996; O’Toole, 1994; van Leeuwen, 2000). Of course, all these other systems share certain features with language in this speciﬁed sense; but none of them incorporates all. The dimensions, or forms of order, in a language, and the ordering principles, are set out in Table 1(3) and Figure 1-6. 1 Structure (syntagmatic order) This is the compositional aspect of language, referred to in linguistic terminology as ‘constituency’.
39 TOWARDS A FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR This combination of grammatical (functional) parallelism with phonological (rhythmic) parallelism foregrounds the grammatical pun in the word attach (be attached to, (1) mental process ‘love’, (2, 3) ‘be rooted in’ — which then sets one to rethinking (1) in terms of roots). The analysis points up how the interaction among patterns at different strata plays a signiﬁcant part in the construction of meaning. (iii) Paradigmatic/lexical (the lexical set) Paradigmatically, lexical items function in sets having shared semantic features and common patterns of collocation.
A characteristic of the approach we are adopting here, that of systemic theory, is that it is comprehensive: it is concerned with language in its entirety, so that whatever is said about one aspect is to be understood always with reference to the total picture. At the same time, of course, what is being said about any 19 THE ARCHITECTURE OF LANGUAGE one aspect also contributes to the total picture; but in that respect as well it is important to recognize where everything ﬁts in. There are many reasons for adopting this systemic perspective; one is that languages evolve — they are not designed, and evolved systems cannot be explained simply as the sum of their parts.
An Introduction to Functional Grammar by Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen