By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

ISBN-10: 1556524803

ISBN-13: 9781556524806

The chance and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unequalled within the annals of event commute. Antarctica: Exploring the extraordinary surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, usually within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. very good points of interest, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage throughout the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from all over the world are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are certain. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a sector that's drawing increasingly more viewers who, just like the adventurers sooner than them, are interested by the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.

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The dimensions of the seas suffered a reduction, and Terra Australis Incognita nearly filled the Southern Hemisphere. Maps of Ptolemy’s world jolted Europe and ushered in the Age of Discovery. Christopher Columbus learned Latin, studied Ptolemy’s manuscripts, and saw a world of possibilities for an ambitious seaman. He narrowed his focus to three potential expeditions: (1) to seek new North Atlantic islands; (2) to search for unknown southern lands; and (3) to sail west across the Atlantic to Asia in search of spices.

By mid-April 1769 the Endeavour anchored in Matavai Bay, previously discovered by Captain Willis. The islanders greeted Captain Cook cheerfully from their canoes—until they spotted a certain four-legged critter. The goat that had sailed with Willis had reveled in butting strangers overboard. But once the goat was securely tethered, the Tahitians boarded the ship and traded fresh fruit for hatchets and iron nails. On June 3, 1769, after the transit of Venus had passed, Cook opened a sealed envelope that contained secret instructions.

This final rejection spurred Magellan to renounce his Portuguese citizenship. Seeking revenge and retribution, he swore allegiance to Charles I, King of Spain, who agreed to finance Magellan’s expedition. For two years THE SEARCH FOR TERRA AUSTRALIS INCOGNITA 7 vicious court intrigue—Spanish and Portuguese—focused on Magellan. Rumors of treachery, plots of murder, and whispered betrayals permeated palace dining halls and bedchambers. A man of few words, Magellan ignored the ruthless gossip and concentrated on securing provisions for his five ships.

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Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

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