By J. Aharoni

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Principles ofAbsorption and Fluorescence within the cavity. Additionally, however, if the laser is arranged to be operating close to threshold then even a weak absorption (which can be viewed as an additional small loss process within the cavity) can have a dramatic effect on the overall gain and thus the output intensity. M, o7 Tuning element Gain medium I I 774 ~~Z_______ ~Z 7 Sample cell ~ Detector Figure 3. The basic elements of an intracavity absorption experiment. As a result, intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS) can be an extremely sensitive probe of weak absorptions; its main disadvantage is the fact that the mechanisms for the sensitivity enhancement are often too complex to allow any simple relationship between the intensity of the laser output and the sample absorbance.

Sources and Instrumentation/or Laser Spectroscopy I = Incident laser power . Area irradiated For a CW laser, we can define the irradiance in terms of the power, P, in watts carried by the beam as, where rand d are the radius and diameter of the beam respectively. For a pulsed laser, we have a slight complication in that two types of irradiance can be considered. The first of these is the average irradiance, lav, given by ER 4ER nr nd 2 ' lav =-2-= where E is the energy per laser pulse in joules and R is the laser repetition rate in Hz.

And White, J. , 1987, Tunable Lasers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Nestor, J. , 1982, Appl. Opt. 21:4154. , 1988, Proc. SPIE 912:214. Schaefer, F. , 1990, Dye Lasers, 3rd Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. , Dobele, H. ,1983, Appl. Phys. B 30:131. Synder, J. J. and Hansch, T. , 1990, Laser Focus World 26:69. 41 Chapter 2 Principles of Absorption and Fluorescence STEPHEN H. ASHWORTH The School of Chemical Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, 1. K. 626 x 10-34 J s. If an atom in the lower energy state 11) absorbs a photon of frequency v it may be excited to the upper state 12).

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Antennae by J. Aharoni

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